Dive into the essence of Oltenia Day in Romania, a celebration that echoes with history, traditions, and the spirit of togetherness. Discover the unique cultural tapestry that defines this remarkable region.
- Date: March 21th
- Main Components: Artistic, cultural, and scientific events
- Popularity: High among the locals, low among the foreigners
- Pairings: Traditional food, music, and dance
- Variations: Depending on the location and the theme
Oltenia Day (Ziua Olteniei) is a public holiday of Romania that was formally established in 2017 to commemorate the entry of Tudor Vladimirescu’s rebel forces into Bucharest during the Wallachian uprising of 1821. It is observed annually on March 21.
Oltenia is a historical and geographical region of Romania, located in the south-west of the country, between the Danube, the Southern Carpathians, and the Olt river. Oltenia is also known as Lesser Wallachia or Wallachia Minor, and has a rich and diverse history, culture, and symbols.
The name Oltenia comes from the word “olˈteni.”, which means “men from the Olt river” in Romanian. The inhabitants of Oltenia are called Oltenians, and they have a distinct identity, language, and customs from other Romanians.
The capital and largest city of Oltenia is Craiova, which is also the seat of the development region Sud – Vest. Oltenia has seven counties: Dolj, Gorj, Mehedinți, Olt, Teleorman, Vâlcea, and Romanați. Oltenia has a total area of 24,095 km2 and a population of 2,045,641 inhabitants, according to the 2021 census.
Oltenia is divided into two parts: Upper Oltenia, which comprises the counties of Gorj, Mehedinți, and Vâlcea, and Lower Oltenia, which comprises the counties of Dolj, Olt, Teleorman, and Romanați. Oltenia has a temperate-continental climate, with four seasons and moderate rainfall. Oltenia is bordered by the regions of Muntenia, Transylvania, and Banat, and by the countries of Serbia and Bulgaria.
Prehistory and Antiquity
The territory of Oltenia has been inhabited since the Paleolithic era, as evidenced by the archaeological sites of Padeș, Tismana, and Strehaia. The first historical inhabitants of Oltenia were the Getae, a Thracian tribe that lived in the area between the 7th and 4th centuries BC.
The Getae were conquered by the Dacians, a related tribe that formed a powerful kingdom under King Burebista in the 1st century BC. The Dacians were in turn conquered by the Romans, who annexed their territory as the province of Dacia in 106 AD, after the Dacian Wars of Emperor Trajan.
The Romans divided Dacia into three parts: Dacia Superior, Dacia Inferior, and Dacia Malvensis. Oltenia was part of Dacia Inferior, and later of Dacia Malvensis. The Romans built several cities, roads, bridges, and fortifications in Oltenia, such as Drobeta, Romula, Sucidava, and the Bridge of Apollodorus over the Danube.
The Romans also brought their culture, language, law, and religion to Oltenia, and assimilated the local population, creating the ancestors of the modern Romanians. The Roman rule in Oltenia lasted until the 3rd century AD, when the province was abandoned due to the pressure of the barbarian invasions.
After the Romans left, Oltenia was invaded by various nomadic peoples, such as the Goths, the Huns, the Taifals, and the Bulgars.
In the early Middle Ages, Oltenia was part of the First Bulgarian Empire, which was founded by the Bulgars, a Turkic people that adopted the Slavic language and culture. The Bulgarians ruled Oltenia until the 11th century, when they were defeated by the Byzantine Empire, which restored its control over the region.
The Byzantines faced the resistance of the local population, which was organized in small polities called “banates”. The most important banates in Oltenia were the Banate of Severin and the Banat of Craiova. The bans, or governors, of these banates were appointed by the Byzantine emperor, but they also had a degree of autonomy and allegiance to the local nobility and the Orthodox Church.
The bans also defended Oltenia from the attacks of the Pechenegs, the Cumans, and the Mongols, who raided the region in the 11th and 13th centuries. In the late 13th century, Oltenia was conquered by the Kingdom of Hungary, which expanded its influence over the region.
The Hungarians imposed their feudal system and their Catholic faith on Oltenia, and appointed their own bans, who were loyal to the Hungarian king. The Hungarians also faced the opposition of the local population, which was supported by the Wallachian voivodes, or princes, who ruled over the neighboring region of Muntenia.
The Wallachian voivodes claimed the sovereignty over Oltenia, and fought several wars with the Hungarians for its possession. The most notable Wallachian voivode who fought for Oltenia was Michael the Brave, who unified Wallachia, Transylvania, and Moldavia under his rule in 1600, creating the first Romanian state.
Michael the Brave was killed in 1601 by the order of the Habsburg emperor, who wanted to prevent his alliance with the Ottoman Empire, which was the dominant power in the region. After his death, Oltenia was divided between the Habsburg Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Wallachian principality, which became a tributary state of the Ottomans.
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Early Modern Period
In the 17th and 18th centuries, Oltenia was the scene of several wars and conflicts between the Habsburgs, the Ottomans, and the Wallachians. The Habsburgs occupied Oltenia several times, and tried to consolidate their rule over the region by colonizing it with Germans, Serbs, and Bulgarians.
The Ottomans also intervened in Oltenia, and replaced the Wallachian voivodes with Greek governors, called Phanariotes, who were appointed by the Sultan from the Phanar district of Constantinople. The Phanariotes imposed a heavy taxation and a harsh administration on Oltenia, and exploited its natural resources and wealth.
The Wallachians resisted the foreign domination, and organized several uprisings and revolts against the Habsburgs and the Ottomans. The most famous Wallachian rebel leader was Tudor Vladimirescu, who led the 1821 uprising, which was part of the Greek War of Independence.
Tudor Vladimirescu gathered a peasant army, called the Pandurs, and marched from Oltenia to Bucharest, where he proclaimed a new constitution and a reform program. Tudor Vladimirescu was betrayed and killed by the Greek revolutionaries, who wanted to establish a Greek state in Wallachia and Moldavia.
His uprising, however, inspired the national awakening of the Romanians, who started to demand their political and cultural rights from the foreign powers.
In the 19th century, Oltenia was part of the United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia, which were formed in 1859 by the union of the two Romanian provinces under a single ruler, Alexandru Ioan Cuza. Cuza initiated a series of reforms, such as the abolition of serfdom, the secularization of the monasteries, and the introduction of universal suffrage, which improved the social and economic conditions of Oltenia.
Cuza was forced to abdicate in 1866 by a coalition of conservative and liberal politicians, who wanted to replace him with a foreign prince, who would guarantee the independence of the Romanian state from the Ottoman influence. The chosen prince was Carol I of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, a German nobleman, who became the first king of Romania in 1881, after the recognition of the Romanian independence by the Treaty of Berlin.
Carol I continued the modernization of Romania, and supported the development of industry, agriculture, education, and culture in Oltenia and other regions. Carol I also involved Romania in the international affairs, and allied with the Triple Entente of France, Russia, and Britain in the First World War, which resulted in the unification of Transylvania, Banat, Bukovina, and Bessarabia with Romania in 1918.
Oltenia contributed to the war effort with its soldiers, resources, and sacrifices, and celebrated the achievement of the national ideal of Greater Romania. In the interwar period, Oltenia enjoyed a period of prosperity and stability, and witnessed the emergence of several cultural and political figures, such as Nicolae Titulescu, Barbu Văcărescu, and Tudor Arghezi.
- the rise of fascism, and the political instability. In the Second World War, Oltenia was occupied by the Nazi Germany and its allies, who committed atrocities and crimes against the population, especially the Jews and the Roma.
- Oltenia was liberated by the Soviet troops in 1944, and became part of the Socialist Republic of Romania, which was established in 1947 by the Communist Party, with the support of the Soviet Union.
- The communist regime imposed a totalitarian and oppressive system on Oltenia, and tried to erase its identity and traditions, by collectivizing the agriculture, nationalizing the industry, banning the religion, and censoring the culture.
- The communist regime also exploited the natural resources and the labor force of Oltenia, and built several industrial and energy projects, such as the Iron Gate I Hydroelectric Power Station, the Rovinari Power Station, and the Turnu Severin Shipyard.
- The communist regime also faced the resistance and the opposition of the Oltenians, who participated in the 1956 workers’ strike, the 1977 miners’ strike, and the 1989 anti-communist revolution, which led to the overthrow and execution of the dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu.
- After the 1989 revolution, Oltenia became part of the democratic and market-oriented Romania, which joined the NATO in 2004 and the European Union in 2007.
- Oltenia experienced a period of transition and transformation, and faced some economic and social problems, such as unemployment, poverty, corruption, and emigration.
- Oltenia also witnessed some positive changes and developments, such as the restoration of democracy, the rule of law, and the human rights, the revival of the civil society and the cultural institutions, and the improvement of the infrastructure and the public services.
- Oltenia also maintained and promoted its identity and heritage, and celebrated its history and culture, through various events and initiatives, such as the Oltenia Day, the Horezu ceramics, and the Horezu Monastery.
Culture and Symbols
Oltenia has a rich and diverse culture, which reflects its history, geography, and identity. Oltenia has a distinctive dialect of the Romanian language, which has some specific words, expressions, and accents, influenced by the Slavic, Turkish, and Hungarian languages.
Oltenia has a strong oral tradition, which includes folk tales, legends, proverbs, riddles, jokes, and songs, that are transmitted from generation to generation, and express the wisdom, humor, and spirit of the Oltenians.
Oltenia has a vibrant folk music, which is characterized by the use of instruments such as the violin, the accordion, the cobza, and the flute, and by the performance of genres such as the doina, the hora, the sârba, and the cântec bătrânesc.
Oltenia has a colorful folk dance, which is performed by groups of men and women, dressed in traditional costumes, and by the display of skills, agility, and grace, in dances such as the călușari, the brâul, the bătuta, and the joc de doi.
Oltenia has a remarkable folk art, which is manifested by the creation of objects such as the Horezu ceramics, the Oltenian carpets, the wood carvings, the icons on glass, and the Easter eggs, that are decorated with geometric, floral, and zoomorphic motifs, and that have a symbolic and aesthetic value.
Oltenia has a splendid folk architecture, which is represented by the houses, the churches, the monasteries, and the fortresses, that are built with local materials, such as wood, stone, and clay, and that have a functional and harmonious design, adapted to the environment and the climate.
Oltenia has a delicious folk cuisine, which is based on the use of ingredients such as corn, wheat, potatoes, beans, cabbage, cheese, meat, and fruits, and by the preparation of dishes such as the mămăligă, the sarmale, the tochitură, the ciorbă, and the plăcintă, that are savory, spicy, and nutritious.
Oltenia has a lively folk religion, which is influenced by the Orthodox Christianity, and by the pre-Christian beliefs and practices, and by the celebration of rituals and festivals, such as the Epiphany, the Easter, the Saint George’s Day, and the Saint Andrew’s Night, that are marked by the use of water, fire, candles, and garlic, and that have a meaning of purification, protection, and divination.
Oltenia has a proud and heroic history, which is commemorated by the monuments, the museums, the memorials, and the personalities, that honor the events, the battles, the achievements, and the figures, that shaped the destiny and the identity of Oltenia, such as the Drobeta Bridge, the Targu Jiu Monumental Ensemble, the Oltenia Museum, and the Tudor Vladimirescu Memorial, and such as Michael the Brave, Constantin Brâncuși, Nicolae Titulescu, and Tudor Arghezi.
Oltenia Day is a public holiday of Romania that was formally established in 2017 by the Law No. 65/2017, which was adopted by the Parliament of Romania, with the support of the majority of the deputies and senators, and with only a few abstentions and oppositions.
The law was promulgated by the President of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, and published in the Official Gazette (Monitorul Oficial) on March 21, 2017. The law states that Oltenia Day is celebrated annually on March 21, as a tribute to the historical and cultural significance of Oltenia, and as a recognition of the contribution of the Oltenians to the national and universal values.
The law also states that Oltenia Day is marked by the organization of artistic, cultural, and scientific events, by the public authorities, the cultural institutions, the educational establishments, and the civil society organizations, in collaboration with the local communities and the media.
The law also states that Oltenia Day is celebrated with the display of the flag and the coat of arms of Oltenia, and with the singing of the anthem of Oltenia, which is composed by the Romanian Radio Broadcasting Company (Societatea Română de Radiodifuziune) and the Romanian Television Society (Societatea Română de Televiziune).
The law also states that Oltenia Day is an occasion for the promotion of the identity, the traditions, and the heritage of Oltenia, and for the enhancement of the solidarity, the pride, and the patriotism of the Oltenians.
OLTENIA DAY IN ROMANIA WISHES, QUOTES, AND MESSAGES
TOP 20 OLTENIA DAY IN ROMANIA WISHES AND GREETINGS
Here are 20 unique Oltenia Day wishes and greetings for Romania:
- May Oltenia Day bring you joy as vibrant as the traditional folk dances that grace the streets of this beautiful region! Happy Oltenia Day!
- Wishing you a day filled with the warmth of Oltenian hospitality and the richness of its cultural tapestry. Happy Oltenia Day to you and your loved ones!
- May the spirit of Oltenia infuse your day with boundless energy, just like the lively melodies of its traditional music. Happy Oltenia Day!
- Sending you wishes for a day as colorful and lively as the traditional costumes that adorn the people of Oltenia. Happy Oltenia Day!
- On this special day, may your heart resonate with the pride and history of Oltenia, creating memories that last a lifetime. Happy Oltenia Day!
- Here’s to celebrating Oltenia Day with a heart full of joy and a soul immersed in the rich traditions that make this region unique. Cheers to a wonderful day!
- May the beauty of Oltenia’s landscapes be reflected in your day, bringing peace and tranquility to your heart. Happy Oltenia Day!
- As Oltenia Day unfolds, may you experience the warmth of community and the embrace of cherished traditions. Happy celebrations to you and yours!
- Wishing you a day filled with the flavors of Oltenian cuisine, the laughter of loved ones, and the magic of this enchanting region. Happy Oltenia Day!
- May the spirit of Oltenia inspire you to dance through life with passion and grace. Happy Oltenia Day, filled with joy and celebration!
- On Oltenia Day, may your heart be as light as the laughter that echoes through the valleys, and may your spirit soar like the eagles that grace the skies. Cheers to a fantastic celebration!
- Here’s to a day of embracing Oltenia’s cultural treasures, from its ancient traditions to its vibrant arts. Happy Oltenia Day, filled with appreciation and wonder!
- May Oltenia Day bring you moments of reflection on the region’s rich history and a deep appreciation for its enduring traditions. Happy celebrations to you!
- Wishing you a day as bright and colorful as the handcrafted pottery that reflects Oltenia’s artistic spirit. Happy Oltenia Day!
- May the joyous rhythms of Oltenian music fill your heart with happiness on this special day. Happy Oltenia Day, filled with melody and celebration!
- Sending you warm wishes on Oltenia Day, with hopes that the spirit of this region continues to inspire and uplift you. Happy celebrations!
- May the vibrant tapestry of Oltenia weave a day of happiness, love, and unforgettable memories for you and your loved ones. Happy Oltenia Day!
- As Oltenia Day unfolds, may the sense of community and togetherness bring you closer to your roots and the heart of this extraordinary region. Happy celebrations!
- Wishing you a day filled with the sweet aroma of Oltenian flowers and the refreshing breeze that whispers tales of this enchanting land. Happy Oltenia Day!
- May Oltenia Day be a reminder of the resilience, beauty, and spirit of this region. Here’s to celebrating the rich tapestry that makes Oltenia truly special. Happy Oltenia Day!
TOP 20 OLTENIA DAY IN ROMANIA QUOTES
Here are 20 unique Oltenia Day quotes for Romania:
- “Oltenia, where history whispers through the wind, and traditions dance in the footsteps of time.” – Unknown
- “In the heart of Oltenia, every cobblestone tells a story, and every smile echoes the warmth of its people.” – Romanian Proverb
- “On Oltenia Day, let the past be a guide, the present a celebration, and the future a canvas painted with the vibrant colors of tradition.” – Anonymous
- “Oltenia: A land where heritage is not just a word but a melody that resonates in the hearts of its people.” – Author Unknown
- “As Oltenia Day dawns, remember: Every sunrise here carries the legacy of a thousand suns that have set before.” – Romanian Poet
- “In the tapestry of Oltenia, every thread is woven with the stories of resilience, pride, and an unwavering spirit.” – Cultural Historian
- “To understand Oltenia is to embrace the poetry of its landscapes, the rhythm of its traditions, and the soulful melodies of its people.” – Local Folklorist
- “Oltenia, where the past and present waltz together, creating a dance of culture and identity.” – Anonymous
- “On Oltenia Day, may we honor the roots that anchor us, the traditions that define us, and the spirit that unites us.” – Cultural Scholar
- “Oltenia’s history is not just written; it’s etched in the laughter of its children, the songs of its elders, and the love of its people.” – Unknown
- “As we celebrate Oltenia Day, let us be the storytellers of our heritage, passing down the tales that make our identity rich and enduring.” – Romanian Storyteller
- “Oltenia, where the hills speak of ancient tales, the rivers carry the whispers of history, and the air is filled with the aroma of tradition.” – Anonymous
- “In Oltenia, each stone in the road is a chapter, each tradition a verse, and each celebration a page in the book of our cultural legacy.” – Local Philosopher
- “On this Oltenia Day, let us not just mark the date but immerse ourselves in the living, breathing history that surrounds us.” – Cultural Observer
- “Oltenia: A symphony of traditions where every note is played by the hands of time, and every lyric is sung by the hearts of its people.” – Romanian Composer
- “As Oltenia Day unfolds, let us remember that our roots are not just in the soil beneath us but in the stories that have shaped us.” – Unknown
- “Oltenia, where every sunrise is a promise, every sunset a reflection, and every day an opportunity to cherish our cultural heritage.” – Local Poet
- “On Oltenia Day, let us embrace the beauty of diversity within our traditions, for it is the mosaic of our culture that makes us strong.” – Cultural Diversity Advocate
- “In Oltenia, time is not just a measure but a companion, guiding us through the ages with the wisdom of our ancestors.” – Romanian Historian
- “Oltenia, a land where the echoes of the past dance in harmony with the rhythm of today, creating a timeless melody that resonates in our hearts.” – Cultural Enthusiast
TOP 20 OLTENIA DAY IN ROMANIA MESSAGES/SMS
Here are 20 unique Oltenia Day messages for Romania:
- “Happy Oltenia Day! May this special occasion fill your heart with the pride of our heritage and the joy of celebrating the rich culture that makes Oltenia unique.”
- “On Oltenia Day, let’s cherish the traditions that bind us together, the history that defines us, and the love that makes us a community. Wishing you a day of joy and celebration!”
- “Warm wishes on Oltenia Day! May the spirit of this vibrant region inspire you to embrace the beauty of our traditions and create lasting memories with your loved ones.”
- “Happy Oltenia Day! May the colors of our cultural tapestry brighten your day, and may the warmth of community surround you on this joyous occasion.”
- “Sending heartfelt greetings on Oltenia Day! May the spirit of resilience and unity that defines our region continue to shine brightly in our hearts and communities.”
- “On this Oltenia Day, let’s take a moment to reflect on the richness of our history, the strength of our traditions, and the beauty of our shared identity. Cheers to a day of celebration!”
- “Wishing you a Happy Oltenia Day filled with laughter, music, and the company of those who cherish the essence of our beloved region. Let the celebrations begin!”
- “May Oltenia Day bring you moments of joy, cultural enrichment, and a deep sense of pride in being part of this incredible community. Happy celebrations to you and your family!”
- “Happy Oltenia Day! Today, let’s honor the legacy of our ancestors, appreciate the beauty of our traditions, and celebrate the richness of our cultural heritage.”
- “As Oltenia Day dawns, may your heart be filled with gratitude for the traditions that connect us and the shared history that shapes our identity. Enjoy the festivities!”
- “Wishing you a day of merriment and cultural enrichment on Oltenia Day! May the vibrant spirit of our region illuminate your path with joy and celebration.”
- “Happy Oltenia Day! May the unity and strength of our community be a source of inspiration, and may the traditions of our region continue to thrive for generations to come.”
- “On Oltenia Day, let’s come together to celebrate the richness of our culture, the warmth of our hospitality, and the uniqueness that defines us. Cheers to a wonderful day!”
- “Warmest wishes on Oltenia Day! May this celebration be a reminder of the beauty within our traditions and the importance of preserving our cultural heritage.”
- “Happy Oltenia Day! May the melodies of our traditional music, the flavors of our cuisine, and the warmth of our community fill your day with happiness and camaraderie.”
- “On this special day, may the love and pride we feel for Oltenia shine brightly. Happy Oltenia Day to you and your loved ones. Let the festivities unite us all!”
- “Wishing you a Happy Oltenia Day filled with moments of joy, cultural exploration, and a deep appreciation for the unique spirit that defines our beloved region.”
- “Happy Oltenia Day! May the traditions of our region continue to be a source of inspiration, and may the bonds of our community grow stronger with each passing celebration.”
- “On Oltenia Day, let’s celebrate the richness of our heritage and the diversity that makes our region truly exceptional. May this day be filled with love, laughter, and cultural pride!”
- “Warm greetings on Oltenia Day! May this celebration be a time of reflection, appreciation, and joy as we come together to honor the traditions that make Oltenia so special.”
Oltenia Day is a public holiday of Romania that celebrates the history, culture, and symbols of Oltenia, a historical and geographical region of Romania, that has a rich and diverse history, culture, and symbols, that reflect its identity and heritage.
Oltenia Day is also a dynamic and modern holiday, that faces some challenges and opportunities, and that strives for development and integration, while preserving and promoting its values and traditions.
Oltenia Day is a holiday that deserves to be known, appreciated, and celebrated, by its inhabitants and by its visitors, as a source of inspiration, pride, and joy.